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Baguio, like Rome, was not built in a day or only by a few outstanding citizens. It was more than a hundred years in the making, and a host of men and institutions played key roles in its development.

On the centennial of Baguio, it is fitting and proper that the present look back to the past and remember those who, each in his own time and each in his own way, contributed significantly to the positive and progressive development of the city. Our search focused on those who laid the foundations of the city, the indigenous peoples who first inhabited this rich and forested plateau in the Benguet highlands, the  men who longed for, quested after and helped build a temperate paradise in the tropics, those who built the roads to and in the hill station and then built the public and private infrastructures to start a city, the pioneers who came to build a city and a home for themselves and their scions, and those who came later to build on the foundations laid by others.

Baguio is more than just a place. It is the people too and their history. The physical structures and their builders are important. But the soul and the culture of the community are probably more important. So we must remember too those who attended to the basic needs of the inhabitants, those who tended to their health and well being, those who nurtured their souls and nourished their spirits, those who taught them skills and knowledge, civic pride and personal ambitions, those who captured and projected the image of the city and its people. These people and many others played key roles and made significant contributions to the development of the city. They are men and they are women, they are families and clans, they are public and private institutions, they are government and civic entities, they are industrial and commercial establishments.

The present can look to a brighter future, if looking to the past it discovers, identifies, remembers and memorializes the builders of this uniquely cosmopolitan and temperately pleasant city in the tropics. And identifying the builders of Baguio, we install a permanent and public memorial, like centennial walls of honor, where their names are inscribed as a salute by the present generation and an inspiration for future generations.

The search has been spearheaded by Commissioner Joseph M. Alabanza and Dr. Reynaldo C. Bautista Sr., aided by the SOCOB and its designated committees, supplemented by nominations from the general public, research work by professors of local universities, the memories of those who know Baguio and its people from personal experience. It was generously supported by the local media. To those who worked hard on this venture, the Centennial Commission and the City owe a debt of gratitude.

Special appreciation goes to Dr. Reynaldo C. Bautista Sr., Mr. Carlos Anton, Chancellor Priscilla S. Macansantos,  Engr. Felino Lagman, Mr. Jose Olarte, Dr. June Prill Brett, Dr. Nini Rusgal, Director Purificacion S. Molintas, Atty. Conrado H. Bueno, Prof. Henry Tenedero, Mrs. Ursula Daoey, Mr. Marianito Meneses, Dean Lucy Jacalne, Professor Amparo Rimas, Fr. Jose Alipio, Ms. Nonette Bennett, Mr. Avmir Pangilinan, Mr. Art Tibaldo, Director Helen Tibaldo, Mr. Gabriel Keith Jr., Mr. Joseph  Zambrano and Ms. Lorie Damasco.

The output of the search and screening committees was turned over to the Centennial Commission who accepts full responsibility for the final decision.

The following initial choices for the names to be inscribed on the memorial walls cannot be a complete list. We have chosen 100 individuals, 70 families and 100 institutions. There must be many more deserving of remembrance but are for now overlooked. The city government should continue the search through the coming years. As the city continues to grow, the names inscribed on the walls should multiply.

BAGUIO BUILDERS, INDIVIDUALS

Ernesto Abellera, Sr.

2     Cecille Afable

3     Joseph M. Alabanza

4     Teodoro Cenizal Arvisu

5     Pedro Baban

6     Juan Balagot

7     Damaso Bangaoet, Sr.

8     Fernando Bautista, Sr.

9     Sergio Bayan

10   Filomeno Biscocho

11   William Brasseur

12   Romeo Brawner

13   Charles Henry Brent

14   Alex Brilliantes

15   Ernesto H. Bueno

16   Jaime R. Bugnosen

17   Daniel H. Burnham

18   Cuidno Carantes

19   Mateo Carantes

20   Jose Ma. Carino

21   Mateo Carino

22   Sioco Carino

23   Fr. Florimond Carlu

24   Moises Cating

25   Charles Cheng

26   Cecilio Cid

27   Andres Cosalan, Sr.

28   Ralph Crosby

29   Avelino Cruz, Sr.

30   Bado Dangwa

31   Virginia de Guia

32   Norberto de Guzman

33   Eduardo de los Santos

34   Jesus de Veyra

35   Johnnie Dimalanta

36   Nick Domalsin

37   Mauricio Domogan

38   Carl Eisbach

39   Florencio Esteban

40   Jose Evangelista

41   Margarita Fernandez

42   Juan M. Flavier

43   Enrique Flores, Sr.

44   Teodora Flores

45   Gaudencio Floresca

46   William Cameron Forbes

47   Macario Fronda

48   Pedro Fuentes

49   Josefina Gorospe

50   Alfred Griffiths

51   Eusebius Halsema

52   Oseo Hamada

53   Sinai Hamada

54   Francis Burton Harrison

55   John W. Haussermann

56   H. C. Heald

57   Potenciano Illusorio

58   Assandas Jethmal

59   Joseph Keith

60   Alice Kelly

61   Lyman W. Kennon

62   Bro. Arman  Lammineur

63   Luis Lardizabal

64   Benito Lopez

65   Cornelio Luczon

66   George Malcolm

67   Gil R. Mallare

68   Fernando Manalo

69   Crispin Mendoza

70   Teofilo Mendoza

71   Dennis Molintas

72   Efrain Montemayor

73   Remsen B. Ogilby

74   William F. Pack

75   Ben Palispis

76   Francisco Paraan

77   William Parson

78   Eugene Pucay, Sr.

79   Francisco Reyes

80   Nenita Santos Rico

81   Justo Rosales

82   Benjamin R. Salvosa

83   Leonora P. San Agustin

84   Otto Scheerer

85   William Henry Scott

86   Alfonso Tabora

87   William Howard Taft

88   Tan Eng Lay

89   Jean Marie Tchang

90   Clotilda Tom

91   Theresa Unno

92   Salvador Vallejo

93   Bernardo M. Vergara

94   Hubert Phelps Whitmarsh

95   Larry Wilson

96   Leonard Wood

97   Dean Worcester

98   Luke E. Wright

99   Bienvenido Yandoc

100 Braulio Yaranon

BAGUIO BUILDERS, FAMILIES

1     Ernesto Abellera, Sr.

2     Acosta / Lising

3     Alabanza Clan

4     Florendo Aquino, Sr.

5     Gregorio Ariz, Sr.

6     Ayson:  Benigno / Restituto / Roman

7     Balajadia / Reyes

8     Fernando and Rosa Bautista

9     Feliciano Belmonte, Sr.

10    Felix Brawner, Sr.

11    Rufino Bueno

12    Bugnosen Brothers

13    Cabato / Valdez

14    Camdas Clan

15    Caoili / Alipio

16    Badjating Carantes Clan

17    Carino Clan

18    Bonifacio Chanbonpin

19    Pedro Claravall, Sr.

20    Dionisio Claridad, Sr.

21    Andres Cosalan, Sr.

22    Fortunato Crisologo, Sr.

23    Mamerto Cuesta

24    de la Rosa Brothers

25    de la Rosa / Jalon

26    Domingo Dimalanta

27    Timoteo Dipasupil

28    Jesus Domingo

29    Sixto Dulay

30    Arsenio Espiritu, Sr.

31    Emily Fianza

32    Florendo

33    Furuya

34    Gaerlan / Mills / Orendain

35    Go Chu Siblings

36    Arsenio Gosioco

37    Hamada / Okubo

38    Hideo Hayakawa

39    George Icard

40    Kairuz

41    Kalias and Djares;  Bay-osan and Kanedja

42    Andres Lao, Sr.

43    Laperal

44    Leung Kwan Ling

45    Ming Leung

46    Lopez / Gomez

47    Ciriaco Lopez, Jr.

48    Ramon Mitra

49    Molintas

50    John Muller

51    J.J. Murphy

52    Baldomero Nevada, Sr.

53    Mauricio Oteyza

54    Ben Palispis

55    Guillermo Paraan

56    Piraso

57    Pucay

58    Juan Resurreccion

59    Nicasio Salenga

60    Benjamin Salvosa

61    Aurelio Sarmiento

62    Tulsiram Sharma

63    Jose Solano

64    Wakat Suello

65    Santiago Tabanda

66    Alfonso Tabora

67    Charles Muneo Teraoka

68    Heinz and Gissella  Woelke

69    Freddie Wong and Siblings

70    Juan Zarate, Sr.

BAGUIO BUILDERS, INSTITUTIONS

1    Apaches

2    Asin Road Woodcarvers Village

3    Baguio Arts Guild

4    Baguio Assn. of Restaurants

5    Baguio Benguet Bankers Club, Inc.

6    Baguio-Benguet Community Credit Cooperative, Inc.

7    Baguio Benguet Contractors’ Association, Inc.

8    Baguio-Beng Public Information & Civic Action Group

9    Baguio Cathedral

10  Baguio Central School

11  Baguio Central University

12  Baguio City Export Processing Zone

13  Baguio City National High School (MPHS- BCHS)

14  Baguio Country Club

15  Baguio General Hospital and Medical Center

16  Baguio General Hospital School of Nursing

17  Baguio Jaycees

18  Baguio Market Vendors Assn

19  Baguio Midland Courier

20  Baguio Mt. Provinces Museum

21  Baguio Patriotic School

22  Baguio Teachers’ Camp

23  Bell Church

24  Benguet Corporation

25  Benguet Lumber

26  BIBAK

27  Boy Scouts of the Philippines

28  Brent Int’l School Baguio

29  Bus Companies: Benguet Auto Line / Dangwa Transportation Company, Inc., Victory Liner, Inc.

30  Camp John Hay

31  Cathedral of the Resurrection

32  Catholic Churches of Baguio

33  Child & Family Service-Phil

34  CICM (Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary)

35  Cid Educational Supply

36  City Bakery & Restaurant

37  City Public Utilities / Baguio Water District

38  City Public utilities / Benguet Electric Cooperative, Inc.

39  City Public Utilities / PLDT / Piltel

40  Dainty Restaurant

41  Easter School

42  Easter Weaving Room, Inc.

43  Filipino-Japanese Foundation of Northern Luzon, Inc.

44  Girl Scouts of the Philippines

45  Gold Ore

46  Gold Star

47  Good Shepherd Baguio, Inc.

48  Holy Family College (ICM St. Louis School Ctr.)

49  Home Sweet Home / Catholic School Press

50  Hotel & Restaurant Association of Baguio

51  Hyatt Terraces

52  ICM (Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary)

53  Iglesia ni Cristo

54  Jaime V. Ongpin Foundation

55  Lepanto Consolidated Mining Corporation

56  Lions Clubs of Baguio

57  Loakan Airport

58  Marishan (Maryknoll Convent School)

59  Mirador Observatory

60  Monday Afternoon Club

61  Moog Controls Corporation

62  Nardas Handwoven Arts and Crafts

63  Newsboys, Comboys and Shoeshine Boys

64  Northern Luzon Association for the Blind, Inc.

65  Notre Dame de Chartres Hospital (Notre Dame de Lourdes Hospital)

66  Ong King Auto Supply

67  Pang-hoi Enterprises, Inc.

68  Patria de Baguio

69  Philex Mining Corporation

70  Phil. Chamber of Commerce &  Industries (Baguio-Beng)

71  Philippine Mental Health Assn. Baguio – Benguet

72  Philippine Military Academy

73  Phil. National Red Cross Baguio

74  Photo  Studios and Itinerant Photographers

75  Pines City Doctors’ Hospital / Pines City Colleges

76  Pines City Nat’l High School

77  Pines Hotel

78  Pink Sisters (Sister Servants of the Holy Spirit of Perpetual Adoration)

79  Pony Boys

80  Print and Broadcast Media

81  Project Luke Christian Healing Ministries, Inc.

82  Protestant Churches of Baguio

83  Public Utility Transport Sys.

84  Rotary Clubs of Baguio

85  Saint Louis University

86  Session Café

87  Soroptimist Int’l of Baguio

88  St. Louis Silver Shop

89  St. Martin School (Assumption Convent)

90  Star Café and Restaurant

91  Sunshine Bakery Group of Companies

92  Tahanang Walang Hagdanan

93  Texas Instruments-Phil

94  United Church Of Christ in the Philippines-Baguio

95  UB  (Baguio Tech)

96  UC (BCF)

97  UP-Baguio

98  Vallejo Hotel

99  YMCA – Baguio

100 YWCA – Baguio

Clearly, the Rancheria of Kafagway, later to become the general site of present-day Baguio, was a minor settlement during the Spanish colonization of the country that lasted for over 300 years. Chuyo, meanwhile, proved a more important Rancheria despite its location at the slopes of Mount Alagut near Mount Sto. Tomas. It had more inhabitants than Kafagway, and reckoning from the writings of Fr. Pedro De Vivar in 1755, some 135 souls in 20 households had signified their interest in becoming Christians. The Rancheria of Tongdo in present-day Tuba municipality was the largest in terms of population, while Benguet (confused as present-day La Trinidad) and Loacan (site of the Baguio airport and PMA) had the least population in Vivar’s list.

But when Amkidit and Chamdya’s son Baruy came of age, he was instructed to build his house in Loacan instead of Kafagway or Chuyo. Baruy’s parents, acknowledged common ancestor of the Ibaloys and Kankanaeys, settled for a while in Acupan and after amassing considerable fortune by trading gold,  moved to Tublay, the hometown of Chamdya upon her request.

Obeying his parents’ wishes, Baruy settled in Loacan where he married Sa-but, daughter of Pel-ing. He recalled that his family also had properties in Deb-ang (Labang) near the southern boundaries of their territory so he sent two women there. Changunay and Kawani built their homes in Deb-ang and started planting sugarcane. One day, while they were weeding their fields, they noticed particles of gold (balitok) adhering to the roots of the grass. They concluded that gold may also be present in the riverbeds where it may have been washed by water. Thus started gold-panning in the southern portions of Benguet, or so the legends say.

Baruy, who already discovered gold deposits at Kadang, became richer with the discovery of the precious metal in Deb-ang. His influence eventually became instrumental in keeping traffic with Pangasinan towns, maintaining peace and order in the area against robbers and cattle rustlers, and in the identification of boundaries (keteg) in some portions of Benguet.

In time, Baruy’s wife bore him a son named Bigagwan who married Sulikam of Loakan. They had two sons, Sangi and Kumicho. Sangi took on four wives in his lifetime, with more than 21 children. Because of his large family, he died a poor man and was buried under his own house.

Kumicho, meanwhile, amassed considerable wealth from trading gold. He personally brought gold from Acupan and Antamok to Lingayen where he established contact and traded with fellow tribesmen living there. He married Makaicha, a native of Puguis, with whom he had two sons, Baban and Gwaygwaya, and a daughter named Sulikam (the second).

Baban would later rise to become a great chieftain, “ a sort of a kinglet of the innermost mountains.” It is from an alliance between the descendants of Baban and those of his sister Sulikam, that emerged the ancestors of Baguio’s original families and distinguished residents.

***

Baban was married to Dugay of Sapdit with whom he had three sons: Kidit (the second), Ulaw, and Bugnay. They left their home in Demtang and relocated to Tongdo where they traded in gold. Baban and Kidit would later meet Padre Vivar in Tongdo in the 1750’s.

Kidit married twice. His first wife, Sonay, was daughter of Dangboy of Kafagway. They had two sons, Apulog Minse and Kumicho (the second). His second wife was Avukay, daughter of Pagid of Diyang, an area near Tuba. Kidit originally lived in a place called Puspusok in the Kisad valley.

Influenced by his contact with the religious orders, Kidit played a key role in the Christianization of his followers. He persuaded his kailians living dispersedly around Chuyo to take up fixed residences within the boundaries of their settlement and make it a common center. This was upon the suggestion of Padre Vivar who said that a centralized community provides better protection against invading forces, and counters the interests of the propertied class called baknangs.

Apulog Minse became the most prominent of Kidit’s children. Born in Puspusok, he married Bunaay (Padya Bunaay) of Kavudyaw, sister of Adarug. By trading in gold and cattle, he would often host feasts called peshit, calculated to show rank in the community. In one of his forays around Benguet, it is said that Apulog Minse happened upon a festival in Antamok. Here, a quarrel arose between a certain Balong and Kigwas, leading the former to hurl a stone at his opponent. The stone accidentally hit Apulog on the forehead, causing his death. Balong was sentenced to a life term in jail at Lingayen where he died in prison.

Apulog Minse’s brother Kumicho, through his son Apsan Karantes, eventually became grand sire of Mateo Karantes (also called Kustacio) of Loacan, and Cuidno Carantes of Lu-ban (Lucban).

Meanwhile, Baban’s sister Sulikam had settled in Chuyo with her husband Kangkang. They had three children, one of whom as a son named Apulog Anas. He successfully bred carabaos in the area, and with his wife Tekkel, had a son named Bigung. Bigung, in a second marriage, wed Savina of Loacan, granddaughter of Amonin of Chuyo. Savina gave birth to a son named Dirut in Pugis. Dirut later moved to Tublay where he changed his name to Mawmaw.

Mawmaw embraced Christianity and was baptized under the sponsorship of a Spanish comandante named Enrique Oraa. He was thus christened Pablo Carino. He married Kalmin Chaxadi of Tublay.

In the christening ceremony, Pablo Carino was with Dangvis, the most distinguished of Apulog Minse’s children. Dangvis received the name Enrique Ortega. From his marriage with Kabingkut (also called Maxaicha), he became the father of Bayosa (also called Sa-but).

Pablo Carino’s eldest son, who was also present in the baptism ceremony, was christened as Juan Carino Oraa, elder brother of Mateo Carino.

Juan Carino Oraa became the most distinguished member of their tribe. He served the government and was decorated with the Gran Cruz de Isabel de Catolica and a Medalla del Merito Civil by the Spanish government.

Under Emilio Aguinaldo’s revolutionary government, he served as provincial Governor of Benguet. From 1916 to his death in 1923, he represented the Mountain Province (old name of the Cordillera Administrative Region) in Congress.

Mateo Carino would later marry Bayosa and be gifted with nine children, the eldest of whom was Sioco, born in 1877 and in whose honor is named present day Baguio’s Campo Sioco. Their fourth child, Dr. Jose Carino, would later become mayor of Baguio City.

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